the history of healthcare in America

I made what was originally intended to be an individual post into its own separate page so I could refer back to it in future posts. Please find below a timeline of significant influences in the fields of Science and Medicine as we know them today. Whether you draw a Bingo card or tack strands of red yard to a bulletin board, take note of recurring people and places as you read; surprising connections and distinct patterns will emerge…


1734 David Hume travels to France where he explores philosophy

1774 due to public objections to his atheism, David Hume misses his appt to chair for moral philosophy at Edinburgh University (Scotland)

1745 the University of Pennsylvania offers the US’ 1st formal course in anatomy

1750 – 1759:

  • 1751 Dr. William Crowther takes a position as librarian to the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh, Scotland
  • Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli is elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
  • the 1st edition of “Encyclopedie” (edited by Denis Diderot, co-edited by French Mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, Jean le Rond d’ Almbert) is published in France as the 1st encyclopedia to include many named contributors and to describe the Mechanical Arts
  • physician and surgeon, Thomas Bond, along with Benjamin Franklin obtain a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital
  • Pennsylvania Hospital is the first hospital in what would become the United States of America
  • both Harvard and Yale Universities award Benjamin Franklin an honorary Master of Arts degrees
  • Franklin becomes a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce and receives an honorary master of arts degree from the College of William & Mary
  • d’ Alembert is elected to the French Academy
  • 1757 future physician, John Morgan graduates from College of Philadelphia
  • 1757 Dr. William Crowther resigns as the Faculty of Advocates’ librarian

1760 – 1769:

  • Daniel Bernoulli presents a paper presenting advantages of variolation (inoculation against smallpox) at the French Academy of Sciences in Paris (he quarreled with d’ Alembert about risks of death from variation vs. the Smallpox virus itself)
  • English physician, Edward Jenner demonstrates safety of cowpox vaccine (a practice he popularized) against Smallpox in England
  • 1763 British Lieutenant in the Seven Years War (who served as surgeon on the Western front), future physician John Morgan earns his degree in medical studies from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland
  • 1763 historian, (philosophy/ economy) essayist, David Hume accepts a position as private secretary to the British Ambassador to France; while in Paris, he becomes Secretary to the Embassy
  • 1764 future physician, John Morgan is elected to the Royal Academy of Surgery at Paris
  • 1765 John Morgan is elected to the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and London
  • Upon returning from studying medical practice in Paris, Dr. John Morgan co-founds College of Philadelphia Medical School (the med school of what would come to be known as “Penn Med”/ University of Pennsylvania) with fellow Edinburgh grad, Dr. William Shippen, which they model after the University of Edinburgh medical school; lectures are supplemented with bedside teaching at the Pennsylvania Hospital (faculty will include future founding president of the American Medical Association and two of the “founding four” physicians of The Johns Hopkins Hospital)
  • 1776 Dr. John Morgan helps found the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia

1770 – 1779:

  • d’Alembert is elected Perpetual Secretary of French Academy
  • 1775 Benjamin Franklin is a corresponding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, England (which includes Matthew Boulton, Johann Gottling, Thomas Percival, Erasmus Darwin– grandfather to Charles Darwin, John Roebuck and Joseph Priestly)
  • Franklin spends 2 months in Germany where he meets scientist, inventor and politician, Otto von Guericke

1780 – 1789:

  • 1781 German philosopher, Immanuel Kent (influenced by empiricist philosophers, such as John Locke and David Hume and rationalist philosophers, such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Christian Wolff) seeks to determine the limits and scope of metaphysics (the faculty of reason striving after knowledge independently of experience) in his “The Critique of Pure Reason”
  • the private (de facto central) Bank of North America is adopted by Continental Congress based on a plan presented by United States Superintendent of Finance (recommended by Alexander Hamilton, who helped Thomas Jefferson defeat Aaron Burr in a presidential election and would later be shot and killed by Burr in a duel when they vied to be governor of New York)– as part of an extension of federal fiscal and monetary power funded by taxes– opens in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • 1783 illustrating mastodon fossils belonging to physician, John Morgan inspires Charles Willson Peale to open an American museum of natural history
  • 1786 14 year old future British economist, David Ricardo (3rd child of 17) is employed full-time by his father at the London Stock Exchange
  • Benjamin Franklin is elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • King Louis XVI appoints a commission (which includes Franklin) to investigate the theory of German doctor, Franz Mesmer, who had an interest in astronomy and was promoting what will later be considered “hypnosis”
  • Bank of North America is re-chartered as Bank of Pennsylvania
  • Edward Jenner is elected fellow at the Royal Society
  • 1786 July 18 Charles Wilson Peale opens an American museum of national history in Pennsylvania
  • 1788 a group of children play outside Columbia College (close to both Pauper’s field and “Negroes Burying Ground”) next to a room where John Hicks, a student of physician, Richard Bayler (known to exhume cemetery corpses and rumored to cut up his patients and perform cruel experiments on them), is dissecting an arm and waves to a boy with it, telling him it’s his mother’s
  • 1788 Jenner’s scientific Cuckoo bird observation findings are published in “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society” (not entirely believed until artist, Jemima Blackburn’s description and illustration convinced Charles Darwin to revise a later edition of his “On the Origin of Species”)
  • the father of the boy taunted by John Hicks discovers his deceased wife’s body has been exhumed and gathers outside the hospital with a group of concerned citizens, who storm the hospital and drag out several students/ assistants
  • when the hospital mob gathered to protest grave robbing increases to 2,000 people, New York physicians are forced into hiding and it takes militia and cavalry to quell rioting at the courthouse
  • a group of freedmen petition for action against grave robbing and are largely ignored
  • future English economist and demographer, Thomas Malthus graduates from Jesus College in Cambridge
  • 1788 New York passes the Anatomy Act, which outlaws grave robbing

1790 – 1799:

  • 1790 US Congress passes The Crimes Act, “comprehensive statute defining an impressive variety of federal crimes” including dissection (to which penalty of death can be added to a murder charge)
  • 1791 the national, First Bank of the United States chartered for 20 yrs by U.S. Congress
  • Thomas Malthus is elected a fellow of Jesus College
  • 1792 May 2 the 1st US Militia Act of 1792 gives the president authority to call out the militias “whenever the United States shall be invaded, or be in imminent danger of invasion from any foreign nation or Indian tribe” and to call the militias into Federal service “whenever the laws of the United States shall be opposed or the execution thereof obstructed, in any state, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals”
  • 1792 May 8 the 2nd US Militia Act of 1792 organizes the compulsory enlistment of every “free able-bodied white male citizen” between the ages of 18 and 45 into a local militia company
  • 1793 French King Louis XVI is tried and executed
  • future British economist, David Ricardo is disowned by his Orthodox Jewish family when he marries Quaker, and becomes a Unitarian
  • 1794 many foreigners living in France are arrested, including British-born American revolutionary pamphleteer, Thomas Paine
  • US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris intercedes on behalf of American Consuls at Dunkirk, Rouen and Le Havre and eventually, Paine (who was slated for execution) is released
  • swing voters back pro-French Thomas Jefferson for US President rather than Federalist John Adams, who was running for re-election
  • 1797 Thomas Malthus (English economist and demographer, who supported the establishment of workhouses for the poor) is ordained a Jesuit priest

1800 – 1809:

  • the United States Library of Congress is founded
  • US president, John Adams is the first President to live in the Executive Mansion (later known as “The White House”)
  • US Congress holds its first session in Washington, DC
  • 1803 US purchases Louisiana Territory from Napoleon I of France (the cost of which is partially covered by a French debt to US citizens)
  • 1804 Rev. Thomas Malthus marries his 1st cousin, Harriet Eckersall
  • 1804 Hobart (future capital of Australian island, Tasmania) is founded in Van Dieman’s Land as a British penal colony
  • 1805 Rev. Malthus becomes a professor of political economy (1st in Britain’s history) and history at the East India Company’s college at Haileybury, Hertfordshire
  • Feb 1808 the 1st experiment to burn anthracite coal is conducted by Judge Jesse Fell of Wilkes-Barre, PA, who proves it’s a viable heating fuel
  • 1808 importation of slaves is outlawed

1810 – 1819:

  • Charles Willson Peale retires from his museum, leaving management to his sons
  • 1810 The Pacific Fur Company is formed by John Jacob Astor
  • Indian warriors are defeated by Indiana governor, William Henry Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe
  • 1811 NM Rothschild & Sons bank is established in London
  • the 1st steam-powered ferry service between New York and New Jersey launches
  • 1812 US declares war on Britain over interference with American maritime shipping and westward expansion
  • 1813 James Madison is elected for a 2nd term as US president
  • 1814 the British capture Washington, DC and set fire to White House and Capitol
  • Rembrandt Peale (second son of Charles Willson Peale, who named him after classical artist Rembrandt van Rijn) establishes his father’s museum– by now “Peale’s Baltimore Museum and Gallery of Fine Arts”– in Baltimore
  • Dec 24 1814 England and America sign a peace treaty at Ghent, which ends the War of 1812
  • Colonel John Stevens gains the 1st charter in North America to build the New Jersey Railroad Company
  • 1814 British economist, David Ricardo retires from city business and buys country estate, Gatcomb Park
  • Dec 25 1815 the 1st performance of the Handel and Haydn Society takes place in Boston
  • 1816 federally recognized, Second Bank of the US is chartered as a private company with public duties
  • 1817 James Monroe becomes US president
  • 1818 Andrew Jackson and the US invade Florida in the Seminole War
  • the northern boundary of Canada is established between the US and the UK
  • the 1st edition of the Farmer’s Almanac is published in Morristown, New Jersey
  • the Panic of 1819 occurs, leading to foreclosures, bank failures, and unemployment
  • economist, David Ricardo is elected to British parliament (independent representing a borough in Ireland)
  • 1819 the 1st private military school in the US, Norwich University is founded in Vermont by Captain Alden Partridge
  • 1819 Thomas Malthus is elected as a fellow of the Royal Society

1820 – 1829:

  • in New Jersey, Princeton grad, Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson (farmer, historian, horticulturalist, judge, soldier and statesman) eats a tomato on the steps of the county courthouse to prove it isn’t poisonous
  • James Monroe defeats John Quincy Adams in the US presidential election
  • 1821 Thomas Malthus is admitted to the Political Economy Club
  • 1821 the 1st pharmacy college is founded in Philadelphia College of Apothecaries; Emma Willard founds US’s 1st women’s college, Troy Female Seminary
  • “The Saturday Evening Post” is published for the 1st time as a weekly newspaper by Atkinson and Alexander (in the same printing shop as the “Pennsylvania Gazette” was in the 18th century)
  • 1822 selling alcohol to Indians becomes illegal, which significantly disrupts the fur trade
  • in St. Louis, General (in the Missouri militia) William Henry Ashley and Major Andrew Henry recruit “Ashley’s Hundred” for an entrepreneurial venture to trap fur for sale/ trade (employees include Jedediah Smith and Jim Bridger)
  • 1823 in a speech to US Congress, James Monroe announces the Monroe Doctrine that opposes European intervention in the Americas
  • 1824 the US War Dept. established the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Seneca tribe member Ely Parker is its 1st director
  • Thomas Malthus is elected as one of the 10 Royal Associates of the Royal Society of Literature
  • Dec 24 1924 the 1st fraternity in the US is begun: Chi Phi, at Princeton University
  • 1825 John Quincy Adams becomes US president
  • the 1st college social fraternity, Kappa Alpha is formed at Union College in Schenectady, New York
  • the internal combustion engine is patented as “gas or vapor engine”
  • 1826 NM Rothschild & Sons bank loans money to the Bank of England to prevent a market liquidity crisis
  • Colonel John Stevens tests the 1st type of steam locomotive “Steam Waggon” (a stem powered horse carriage)
  • 1st US passenger railroad runs
  • 2nd and 3rd US presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson pass away on America’s Independence Day
  • David Edward Jackson (for whom Jackson Hole, Wyoming is named), Jedediah Smith and William Sublette purchase William Ashley’s interest in the fur trade company (which will later become the Rocky Mountain Fur Company)
  • 1827 the Senate ratifies the Treaty of Limits to establish the Sabine River as the border between Mexican and the US in agreement with the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
  • the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is incorporated (it will become the 1st US railroad to offer transportation for people and commercial goods)
  • 1827 the 1st Roman Catholic Mass in the Hawaiian Islands leads to the foundation of the Diocese of Honolulu
  • Joseph Smith, Jr. claims the angel, Moroni gave him a record of gold plates (later translated into The Book of Mormon)
  • 1828 Noah Webster copyrights and publishes “The American Dictionary of the English Language”
  • the 1st US passenger railroad begins
  • Andrew Jackson is US president
  • 1829 the estate of British chemist and mineralogist scientist, James Smithson bequeaths money to Washington, DC “for the increase and diffusion of knowledge,” which founds the United States National Museum
  • chief engineer for Delaware and Hudson Canal Company (which will become the Delaware and Hudson Railway), Horatio Allen tests an English steam locomotive (a 2-axle machine with a double boiler) but it proves too heavy for the track

1830 – 1839: 

  • Joseph Smith publishes the Book of Mormon then organizes the Mormon Church (the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) in Fayette, New York
  • US Congress approves the Indian Removal Act, which facilitates the relocation of Indian tribes from east of the Mississippi River
  • Jedediah Smith and 2 others sel their fur company to Jim Bridger and 4 others, who found the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade Company
  • June 30 1831 US Army Lieutenant Robert E. Lee marries Mary Custis (great granddaughter of Martha Washington) overlooking the capital at Washington, DC
  • 1832 US president, Andrew Jackson signs the 1st act of Congress to protect a natural resource; it reserves 4 parcels of land with hot mineral springs in Arkansas Territory
  • New Jersey Railroad Company is constructed
  • Britain’s Anatomy Act of 1832 makes grave robbing illegal but allows teachers of anatomy and bona fide medical students to dissect human corpses
  • Oct 1832 The Trail of Tears begins as Washington Irving, Henry Levitt Ellsworth and Captain Jesse Bean being the US campaign to remove East Coast  Indians from their homes
  • 1833 the 2nd presidential term for Andrew Jackson
  • Sept 1833 the 1st US coed college, Oberlin College is founded, refusing to bar students on the basis of race
  • March 1834 the US Senate harshly criticizes President Jackson for de-funding the Second Bank of the United States and replacing it with individual states’ banks
  • 1834 Thomas Malthus is among the founding members of the Statistical Society of London
  • 1835 shots fired at President Jackson miss him
  • Phineas Taylor (“PT”) Barnum buys an elderly slave, who he showcases throughout the Northeast as a 161 year old former nurse to George Washington and makes a substantial profit
  • 1836 at the battle for The Alamo, Texas troops lose but the state’s independence is declared at a convention of delegates from 57 communities
  • President Jackson issues executive order, The Specie Act, which requires payment for government land to be in gold or silver
  • 1837 Martin Van Buren becomes US president
  • May 10 1837 The Panic of 1837 led to a general economic depression
  • portrait painter Samuel Morse publicly demonstrates the telegraph and develops the Morse Code system of communication
  • 1838 Missouri governor expels Mormons from the state
  • 1839 the 1st university West of the Mississippi River, the University of Missouri is established
  • Feb 1839 the 1st state law allowing women to own property is passed in Jackson, Mississippi
  • William Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel
  • American inventor Thaddeus Fairbanks invents the platform scales
  • Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization (strengthening)
  • Friedrich Bayer, 14 year old son of a silk maker joins chemicals dealer, Wesenfeld und Co. in as an apprentice (in industrial metropolis of the region of Bergisches Land, Germany)
  • Nov 11 1939 the Virginia Military Institute is founded

1840 – 1849: 

  • Samuel Morse applies for a patent for his invention, the telegraph
  • it patent is issued for rubber vulcanization
  • the 1st ongoing filibuster begins in the US Senate
  • US president, William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia only 1 month after his inauguration
  • President Harrison is succeeded by Vice President John Tyler
  • 1841 University Medical College is reorganized as the Medical Dept. of University of the City of New York (notable original faculty includes patriot, Paul Revere’s son, John Revere)
  • PT Barnum buy’s Scudder’s American Museum (in lower Manhattan), which he reopens as Barnum’s American Museum featuring the “Feejee Mermaid” and other oddities, which would eventually become a collection of 850,000 exhibits
  • the 1st wagon train to California leaves from Independence, Missouri
  • President Tyler vetoes Andrew Jackson’s bill, re-establishing the Second Bank of the United States, which causes the most violent demonstration (riot among Whig party members) on the grounds of the White House in US history
  • Jan 31 1842 President Tyler’s daughter, Elizabeth marries William Nevison Walker, at the White House
  • the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treated fixes the US and Canadian, which includes Maine and Minnesota
  • PT Barnum meets 4-year-old Charles Sherwood Stratton (25 inches tall and weighs 15 lbs), who he trains to sing and dance as “General Tom Thumb;” the exhibit becomes so popular it tours Europe, whose audience includes Queen Victoria and the Tzar of Russia
  • the University of Notre Dame is founded by Father Edward Sorin of the Congregation of the Holy Cross
  • the 1st minstrel show in the US debuts at the Bowery Amplitheatre in NYC
  • 1843 PT Barnum hires Native American dancer, fu-Hum-Me (the 1st of many First Nations people whom he would exhibit)
  • 1843 the 2nd organized wagon train on the Oregon Trail leaves from Elm Grove, Missouri
  • telegraph inventor, Samuel B. Morse sends his 1st message over the line from Washington to Baltimore: “What God hath wrought.”
  • 1844 James K. Polk becomes US president; for the 1st time is US history, Congress joins the Senate in overriding President Tyler’s veto of a bill prohibiting him from authorizing the building of Coast Guard ships without approved appropriations
  • 1844 Henry Lehman arrives in America from Germany and settles in Montgomery, Alabama where he opens a dry-goods store, “H. Lehman”
  • December 2, 1845 President Polk announces to Congress the Monroe Doctrine should be strictly enforced and the settlement of the West should be aggressively pursued (a.k.a. “Manifest Destiny”)
  • Jan 1846 US House of Representatives changes its policy on sharing territory with the UK and signs the Oregon Treaty, which fixes the boundary between the US Canada
  • 1846 US Congress passes an act to establish the Smithsonian Institute (formerly the United States National Museum)
  • 1846 an act of US Congress establishes the Smithsonian Institute
  • a committee forms to analyze methodology of record collection/ keeping then urges US states to register births, marriages and deaths
  • 1847 the American Medical Association is founded in Philadelphia then establishes the 1st US code of medical ethics
  • Britain’s Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce is granted a royal charter
  • John B. Curtis makes and sells his homemade chewing gum, The State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum
  • 1847 Henry Lehmen’s brother, Emanuel emigrates and the business becomes “H. Lehman and Bro.”
  • 1847 following violent clashes over beliefs (most notably Polygamy), Brigham Young leads Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah
  • James W. Marshall discovers gold in California
  • the New York Herald breaks news of the California gold rush, which prompts a flood of prospectors to the area
  • 1848 Mayer Lehman joins his brothers, Henry and Emanuel at now-named “Lehman Brothers” and they become cotton factors (selling for cotton planters by accepting cotton bales from customers as payment) and cotton trading becomes a secondary business
  • 1848 The Declaration of Sentiments (calling for equal rights for women and men) is signed in the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Seneca Falls, New York at the 1st Women’s Rights Convention led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • 1848 Dr. John Harlow writes to the editor of the “Boston Medical and Surgical Journal” describing how his patient, a 25-year-old railroad foreman, accidentally drove an iron rod through the left side of his face; despite survival and recovery, the patient sustained significant personality changes
  • Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War wins the 1st US election held on the same date in every state
  • 1848 Friedrich Bayer founds his 1st sales company and establishes an European distribution network (which includes London, Brussels, St. Petersburg , New York)
  • 1849 Elizabeth Blackwell, the US’ 1st female doctor is granted her degree by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York
  • 1849 regular steamboat service is inaugurated between the US East and West coasts
  • the US Dept. of the Interior is established
  • the Peale Museum is sold to PT Barnum

1850 – 1859:

  • 1850 PT Barnum promotes the American tour of Swedish opera singer, Jenny Lind
  • July 1850 Millard Fillmore becomes US president upon the death (by cholera) of Zachary Taylor
  • 1853 French chemist, Charles Friedrich Gerharedt is the 1st to describe acetylsalicylic acid– a modification of salicylic acid or salicin (a folk remedy of Willow tree bark for pain management)
  • 1855 the completed Smithsonian complex opens
  • efforts of NYU College of Medicine faculty lead to the legalization of human dissection in New York
  • Andrew Carnegie becomes secretary/ telegraph operator for Pennsylvania Railroad Co. where he gets promoted to superintendent of its Western division and hires his brother, Tom and cousin, Maria Hogan (the 1st female telegraph operator)
  • Carnegie’s bosses, Tom Scott and J. Edgar Thomson teach him insider trading as quid pro quo deals build Carnegie’s fortune
  • German chemist, Albert Niemann officially isolates the drug, cocaine by extracting it from coca leaves
  • 1857 March the US Supreme Court rules in the Dred Scott decision: a slave doesn’t  become free when transported into a free state, slavery in a territory cannot not be banned by Congress and blacks aren’t eligible for US citizenship
  • 1858 Nicholson, Graham & Jones (London-based) law firm is founded
  • 1858 the 1st transatlantic cable is completed by Cyrus West Field and others
  • 1859 Cheesebrough Manufacturing Company is founded by Robert Augustus Cheesebrough to market oil products for medicinal needs, such as Vaseline (under brand name Luxor)
  • 1859 Aug the 1st productive oil well for commercial use is drilled by Edwin L. Drake in Titusville, Pennsylvania

1860 – 1869:

  • 1860 the Pony Express begins as Overland mail between Sacramento, California and St. Joseph’s, Missouri is carried on horseback over the Oregon Trail 
  • 1861 Abraham Lincoln becomes US President
  • Now-Assistant Secretary of War, Tom Scott is in charge of military transportation and appoints Andrew Carnegie to Superintendent of the Military Railways and the Union Government’s Eastern telegraph lines
  • Bellevue Hospital Medical College is founded
  • Carnegie invests in Columbia Oil Co. in Pennsylvania and helps establish a rolling steel mill
  • UK’s Privy Counsel discusses the national food supply, emphasizing meat availability, and makes rules concerning the makeup of citizens’ diets
  • 1862 May the Homestead Act is approved, which grants family farms of 160 acres (65 hectares) to settlers, many of which were carved from Indian territories
  • July the Land Grant Act is approved, which calls for public land sale to fund agricultural education (this eventually leads to the establishment of state universities)
  • 1862 the US Militia Act of 1862 amends the Militia Act of 1795 by allowing African-Americans to serve as war laborers and soldiers
  • 1863 dye salesman, Friedrich Bayer and master dyer, Johann Friedrich Weskott found dyestuffs factory, Bayer et comp. in Germany
  • 1863 July riots in New York (from protestation of the US draft provision that allows money to be paid to get out of military service) kill about 1,000 people
  • 1865 April 14 President, Abraham Lincoln is shot and killed
  • Andrew Carnegie helps form Keystone Bridge Works and Union Ironworks, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Henry Flagler (former sales associate of a grain business, future founder of Florida East Coast Railway and “father” of Miami and Palm Beach, Florida) and his brother-in-law form a salt and mining production business
  • a partnership forms between Flagler, John D. Rockefeller and his brother, William Rockefeller, along with chemist and inventor, Samuel Andrews (credited with inventing fractional distillation– the separation of crude oil into its components) and silent partners Stephen V. Harkness (a distiller, who makes a hefty profit providing crude oil to refineries) and William Rockefeller’s wife’s brother-in-law, Oliver Burr Jennings (former owner of a mercantile in San Francisco during the California gold rush, distantly related to U.S. Vice President, Aaron Burr)
  • 1865 July PT Barnum’s American Museum burns to the ground
  • JP Morgan (through various partnerships) gains control of– and reorganizes– numerous railroad companies
  • Susan B. Anthony merges her organization with another to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • dentist, William F. Semple or doctor, Amos Tyler files 1st patent for chewing gum
  • 1867 Mayer and Emanuel Lehman move their headquarters to New York City and help to found the New York Cotton Exchange
  • 1868 March Barnum’s reopened museum burns to the ground at its new location

1870 – 1879:

  • 1870 Standard Oil Co. (by now the world’s largest oil refiner) is founded by Henry Flagler and John D. Rockefeller, who is chair and the major shareholder
  • 1870 Britain’s Elementary Education Act (a.k.a. Forster’s Education Act) establishes/ organizes local public education for children aged 5–12
  • 1870 a network of marine hospitals has developed and is placed under the charge of a medical officer within the US Bureau of the Treasury Department
  • chemist, Robert Chesebrough sells his patented product, Vaseline (petroleum jelly– a biproduct of petroleum residue) in New Jersey as an all-purpose medical salve
  • 1871 Aug 29 New Jersey governor, Theodore F. Randolph approves the purchase of land near Morristown to relocate Trenton’s overcrowded The Lunatic Asylum Trenton
  • 1871 retired museum curator, PT Barnum partners with circus owners Dan Castello and William C. Coup to launch Barnum’s Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan and Hippodrome
  • William Osler receives his MD from McGill University in Montreal, Canada
  • Standard vies with the Pennsylvania Railroad for control of refineries and pipelines
  • Nathan Rothschild (eldest son of an Austian Baron and Baroness, who would fund Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Co. and help set up the Rhodes scholarship after his death) is a partner in the London branch of his family’s bank, NM Rothschild & Sons (who serves the British Royal Family) where he becomes head when his father dies
  • 1873 chemist, Friedrich Bayer, son of Bayer’s founder joins the company
  • 1874 St. Louis, Missouri’s Eads Bridge proved the capability of Carnegie’s steel technology
  • 1875 PT Barnum acquires full ownership of  his traveling business venture, which he dubs, “The Greatest Show on Earth”
  • William Osler returns from studying in London, Berlin and Vienna to join the medical faculty at McGill University in Montreal
  • Ernest Jones is born to a self-taught colliery (underground coal mining) engineer, who became accountant and company secretary at the Elba Steelworks in Gowerton, Wales
  • Osler is promoted to professor at McGill
  • 1877 The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (New Jersey) opens its doors

Mason Science College was a university college in Birmingham, England, and a predecessor college of Birmingham University. Founded in 1875 by industrialist and philanthropist Sir Josiah Mason, the college was incorporated into the University of Birmingham in 1900. Two students of the college, Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, later went on to become Prime Ministers of the UK

1880 – 1889:

  • 1880 Bayer’s founder dies; the company becomes a joint-stock company: Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayern & Co (a.k.a. Elberfelder Farbenfabriken)
  • 1881 Cheesebrough Manufacturing begins operating under Standard Oil Co.
  • 1881 British “fancy goods” proprietor, George Newnes founds “Tit-Bits” (a mini-encyclopedia style magazine containing literary excerpts from authors such as Isaac Asimov) in direct response to the Forster’s Education Act)
  • 1881 President, James A. Garfield is shot and killed
  • 1881 PT Barnum joins forces with fellow circus managers, James A. Bailey and James L. Hutchinson
  • 1881 Sigmund Freud qualifies as a doctor of medicine
  • 1882 Freud is hired as a doctor at Theodor Meynert’s Psychiatric Clinic
  • PT Barnum, Bailey and Hutchinson introduce elephant, “Jumbo” (from the Zoological Society of London)
  • 1883 from the private law offices of Harold Preston emerges Preston, Gates & Ellis (“PG&E”) law firm
  • 1884 London hosts the International Health Exhibition where the Privy Counsel divides the formerly awarded prize amount between food and cooking exhibits
  • New York Post-Graduate Med School and Hospital are founded
  • Andrew Carnegie buys rivals of his steel works companies, including J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works, Keystone Bridgeworks and Union Iron mills
  • William Osler is elected a fellow of British Royal College of Physicians (only 1 of 2 Canadian fellows at the time)
  • Osler leaves Montreal for Philadelphia to become a professor of clinical medicine at University of Pennsylvania
  • 1884 Sigmund Freud joins the Department of Nervous Diseases at General Hospital in Vienna, Austria and begins studying effects and potential medical uses of coca (cocaine) as a cure for depression and sexual impotence by using it himself and recommending it to friends
  • 1885 Freud is appointed lecturer in neuropathology at the University of Vienna in Austria and receives a grant to study with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, France
  • Dr. John Stith Pemberton invents flavored syrup mixed with carbonated water, which his partner/ bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson named, “Coca-Cola”
  • Andrew Carnegie donates to Bellevue Hospital Medical College (now part of New York University Medical Center) to found a lab (now the Carnegie Laboratory)
  • Sigmund Freud establishes his private practice in Vienna, Austria
  • 1887 the Hygienic Laboratory for the study of bacteria is established at the US Marine Hospital in New York
  • 1887 PT Barnum agrees give up control of the circus, which is rebranded as “Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth”
  • 1888 Swiss psychiatrist, Gottlieb Burckhardt intentionally lesions the brain to induce behavioral changes in those with mental illness
  • 1889 Freud travels to France to study hypnosis
  • John S. Billings recruits William Osler to be physician-in-chief and professor of medicine of planned school of medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital

1890 – 1899:

  • British publishing company, Associated Newspapers is founded by Lord Harmsworth
  • 1892 Andrew Carnegie founds Carnegie Steel Co. (becomes the largest manufacturer of pig iron, steel rails, and coal derivative, “coke” in the world)
  • 1891 Swiss psychiatrist Gottlieb Burckhardt publishes a case series on topectomy for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia (
  • 1892 William Osler, a professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University publishes his textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine
  • 1892 Albert Einstein is introduced to “Critique of Pure Reason” by German philosopher, Immanuel Kant (influential during the Age of Enlightenment, best known for his doctrine of transcendental idealism), who will become his favorite philosopher
  • 1894 Henry Ford becomes an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit
  • 1892 the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. (1st integrated iron and steel mill west of St. Louis) is built and mostly owned and controlled by John D. Rockefeller
  • 1893, English-American photographer, Eadweard Muybridge gives lectures and projects hand-painted animated images at his Zoopraxigraphical Hall at the World’s Columbian Expo in Chicago
  • Freud treats a woman who becomes his first case study of the condition he calls, “hysteria”
  • 1895 The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (New Jersey) operates over capacity
  • 1896 Freud 1st uses the term, “psychoanalysis”
  • 1896 Charles Stewart Rolls joins the Automobile Club of France (where he will meet Henry Royce)
  • 1st major oil discovery in Texas
  • Albert Einstein moves from Germany to Switzerland
  • Freud begins self-analysis
  • the Federal Treasury nearly runs out of gold so bonds are sold directly to the public rather than buying gold from JP Morgan’s European banks but an old Civil War statute allows a loophole so Morgan, along with his brother in law, banker, Walter Hayes Burns and financier, NM Rothschild sell gold directly to the U.S. Treasury
  • the University of the City of New York changes its name to New York University
  • Andrew Carnegie joins the American Anti-Imperialist League (membership included his friend, writer, Mark Twain)
  • De Beers Diamond Co. is founded with Rothschild family capital
  • the University of Medical College and Bellevue Medical College merge to form the University of Bellevue Hospital Medical College
  • future inventor/ car designer, Edward G. Budd works with Pullman Company on a contract for Pennsylvania Railroad building the 1st all-steel car
  • 1898 Charles Stewart Rolls graduates from Cambridge
  • Bayer company trademarks heroin for the drug, diacetylmorphine, which is marketed as a cough suppressant and non-addictive morphine substitute
  • 1899 Henry Ford resigns as chief engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company’s main plant to focus on automobile production
  • 1899 Aspirin is trademark registered (through Bayer company) worldwide (it will lose its trademark status in the US, France and UK after WW1)

1900 – 1909:

  • 1900 Albert Einstein receives his academic teaching diploma from Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich
  • The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing U.S. currency on the gold standard
  • 1901 January 1 New Zealand’s Nurses Registration Act 1901 makes them the first country in the world to require state registration of nurses
  • February a commission on yellow fever in the US announces the disease is carried by mosquitoes
  • 1901 a new dorm is completed at The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (New Jersey) to ease overcrowding
  • 1901 Sigmund Freud treats eighteen year old, Dora
  • 1901 Einstein acquires Swiss citizenship
  • Charles Stewart Rolls founds a ballooning club with British wine merchant, Frank Hedges Butler while on a hot air balloon flight with English painter, Stanley Spencer, which will will become the Royal Aero Club
  • Carnegie Steel Company is sold to the United States Steel Corporation, which was recently formed by John Piermont (“JP”) Morgan (the 1st in the world to have over a billion dollars in market capitalization)
  • Pan-American Expo in Buffalo, New York is short-lived following the assassination of US president, William McKinley, who is shot there
  • 1902 January 1 – Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates his wireless telephone device in Kentucky
  • 1902 Humphrey Verdon Roe takes control of his deceased uncle’s webbing manufacturing company, Everard & Co.
  • April 13 – A new land speed record of 74 mph (119 km/h) is set in Nice, France when Léon Serpollet drives a steam car.
  • July 17 – Willis Carrier devises the first modern air conditioning system for a plant in New York City
  • 1902 President Theodore Roosevelt orders the Justice Dept. to sue JP Morgan’s Northern Securities Co. to break it up
  • Walter Sutton (in the US) and Theodor Boveri (in Germany) independently develop the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory to explain the mechanism underlying genetic inheritance by identifying chromosomes
  • William Bayliss and Ernest Starling make the 1st discovery of a hormone, secretin
  • Remains of the 2nd T-Rex specimen (the 1st recognized as such), are excavated by American paleontologist, Barnum Brown (a.k.a. “Mr. Bones,” though he was named after PT Barnum) in Montana
  • 1902 Freud and 4 friends form the Wednesday Psychological Society (which will later become The Vienna Psychoanalytical Society)
  • 1902 the Carnegie Institution forms in Washington, D.C. with a sizable gift from Andrew Carnegie
  • Marie Stopes is the youngest person in Britain to graduate form University of London (BSc in botany and geology)
  • 1902 Edwin Thomas Meredith founds “Meredith Corporation” when he begins publishing “Successful Farming” magazine
  • 1902 Thomas Lincoln Talley opens California’s 1st permanent movie theater, the Electric Theater in Los Angeles
  • 1903 Fischer and von Mering discover that barbitone is an effective hypnotic agent
  • 1903 US Congress enacts the Efficiency in Militia Act, which creates a National Guard and provides federal funds for equipment and training, including annual summer encampments
  • 1903 John D. Rockefeller donates money to incorporate the General Education Board (GEB)
  • 1903 The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (Trenton, New Jersey) operates over capacity
  • 1903 Charles Stewart Rolls starts CS Rolls & Co.
  • 1903 Nov 2 British national daily tabloid newspaper, the “Daily Mirror” is founded (“for gentlewomen” and run by women) by Alfred Harmsworth, future 1st Viscount Northcliffe
  • Andrew Carnegie donates money to help University of Birmingham, a public research university in the UK that receives its royal charter to succeed Queen’s College
  • one of the largest world’s fairs opens in Paris, France
  • after a series of acquisitions and mergers (including Federal Steel Co. with Carnegie Steel Co.), JP Morgan & Co is one of the most powerful banking houses in the world
  • 1905 after publishing 4 groundbreaking academic papers, Einstein is awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich
  • Coca-Cola removes coca-derived cocaine from its soda pop recipe
  • German chemists, Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering 1st synthesize barbitone (a.k.a. diethylmalonyl urea or diethylbarbituric acid), an odorless, slightly bitter, white crystalline powder
  • 1904 the Bayer company markets Barbital as “Veronal” while a soluble salt of barbital was marketed by the Schering company as “Medinal” for “insomnia induced by nervous excitability”
  • 1904 editor, Alfred Harmsworth appoints Hamilton Fyfe as editor of the “Daily Mirror” and fires all the paper’s female journalists; the masthead is changed to “The Daily Illustrated Mirror”
  • Freud is appointed Professor Extraordinarius at the University of Vienna in Austria
  • the 1st cross country automobile trip from San Francisco to New York
  • Louisiana Purchase Expo, a.k.a. “St. Louis World’s Fair” alongside the 1st Olympic Games in the Western hemisphere
  • 1905 City of Las Vegas forms
  • 1906 (Elliot) Alliot Verdon Roe becomes secretary of Royal Aero Club (thanks to Charles Stewart Rolls)
  • Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act are passed in response to allegations that manufacturing plants are distributing tainted goods, especially in Chicago’s meat-packing district
  • a mechanic for the Wright brother’s company is the 1st passenger to fly aboard an airplane
  • King Edward VII grants Society of Arts permission for use of use “royal” in its name (Royal Society of Arts)
  • Henry Ford builds the 1st model-T automobile
  • The Alaska-Yukon Pacific Expo in Seattle, Washington
  • First International Congress of Psychoanalysis in Salzburg, Austria
  • Ernest Jones visits Carl Jung in Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1906 a state-of-the-art electrotherapeutic room is installed in the main building at The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (Trenton, New Jersey) and the women’s dorm receives hydrotherapy facilities (female patients have access to douches, massages, hot air cabinets)
  • 1907 a hydrotherapeutic treatment room is available for male patients at The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (Trenton, New Jersey)
  • 1907 Alliott Verdon Roe wins a “Daily Mail” competition for one of his flying model designs, with which he builds the full-sized, Roe I Biplane
  • 1908 The Wednesday Psychological Society is officially recognized as it becomes the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society
  • 1908 Charles Stewart Rolls files with pilot, Wilbur Wright
  • 1909 Humphrey Verdon Roe invests in his brother, Alliott’s aeronautical inventions

1910 – 1919:

  • Congress authorizes the United States Bureau of Mines
  • 1910 July 12 Charles Stewart Rolls is killed when the tail of his aircraft (a Wright Flyer) breaks off
  • Alliott Verdon Roe founds the A.V. Roe Aircraft Co. with his brother, Humphrey
  • Clarence Birdseye drops out of college (due to lack of finances) and works as a naturalist for the US Agriculture Dept. doing a fish and wildlife survey and they station him in Labrador (now Canada) where he observes the fish freezing process of indigenous Inuits there
  • the International Psychoanalytical Association is founded
  • 1910 The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching issues the publication of Abraham Flexner’s report
  • 1911 Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (later to become IMB) is founded
  • Birdseye traps mammals in Montana for entomologist, Willard Von Orsdel King, who would discover ticks as the cause of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • 1911 The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (Trenton, New Jersey) operates over capacity
  • 1911 future “father of forensic ballistics,” Calvin Hooker Goddard graduates with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Johns Hopkins University
  • the “Committee,” a group composed of Freud’s closest associates (including Karl Abraham, Sándor Ferenczi, Ernest Jones, Otto Rank, and Hanns Sachs), is established to consult regularly on issues relating to Freud and the psychoanalytic movement
  • John D. Rockefeller turns his controlling interest in the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. to his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr., who manages it from his New York City office
  • the 1st airplane flight to carry freight from New York to California
  • US Supreme Court declares Standard Oil an unreasonable monopoly and orders it dissolved
  • Chesebrough Manufacturing becomes independent again, adding sites in Pittsburgh and London
  • Budd Company is founded by inventor, Edward G. Budd
  • 1912 The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (New Jersey) establishes a photo department to document facial expressions and characteristics to match with mental disorders; a dental clinic opens
  • 1912 James Dixon Williams opens Luna Park in Melbourne, Australia and illuminates 15,000 electric lights, which draws a crowd of 22,300 people it’s 1st night
  • 1912 Los Angeles’ Electric Theater is the 1st to show a color movie
  • Dr. Marie Stopes is the 1st woman to gain a PhD in botany from University of Munich
  • 1912 Abraham Flexner is recruited by General Education Board (GEB) and is appointed Secretary
  • 1st transcontinental airline flight
  • President, Theodore Roosevelt is shot but survives
  • Ford Motor Co. introduces the 1st moving assembly line
  • brothers, Humphrey and Allicott Roe’s AV Roe & Co. is registered
  • founder, Alfred Harmsworth (the future Lord Northcliffe) sells the “Daily Mirror” to his brother, Harold Harmsworth (the future Lord Rothermere)
  • 1913 Congress authorizes the Federal Reserve System
  • 1913 a Tuberclulosis pavilion is finished and occupied at The State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains (Trenton, New Jersey)
  • Dodge Brothers begin discussions with Budd Company
  • 1914 The Ludlow Massacre occurs when The Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel and Iron Company guards attack a tent colony of striking miners, killing 21
  • Henry Ford publishes an anti-smoking book to be circulated among the youth
  • 1915 Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson have the 1st telephone conversation between San Francisco and New York
  • 1915 future “father of forensic ballistics,” Calvin H. Goddard earns a medical degree from John Hopkins University
  • 1915, Einstein is approached by the Berlin Goethe League, a peaceable organization that wishes to publish his views on the war effort
  • 1915 Einstein writes “My Opinion of the War,” in which he argues that the roots of war lie in the aggressive biology of males and urges the creation of an international political order to promote peace
  • 1915 General Radio Company is founded by Melville Eastham and investors, including William Stephenson
  • 1915 Panama-Pacific International Expo in San Francisco
  • 1916 Margaret Sanger opens the 1st birth control clinic in the US in Brownsville (a predominantly Jewish area of Brooklyn)
  • 1917, Herbert Lehman is commissioned a captain in the US Army (will leave the service in 2 years with the rank of full colonel)
  • 1917 Thomas L. Tally and James Dixon Williams found First National Pictures as an association of exhibitors
  • 1917 Dr. Binnie Dunlop introduces aeronautics businessman, Allicott Verdon Roe to palaeobotanist, Dr. Marie Stopes
  • Jan 8 1918 Speaking before the US Congress, President Woodrow Wilson specified the last of his Fourteen Points, which called for a “general association of nations… formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
  • 1918 March Allicott Verdon Roe sustains injuries to his spine and ankle in a plane crash during a bombing raid
  • 1918 “Successful Farming” publisher, Edwin T. Meredith serves on the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
  • 1918 US president, Woodrow Wilson appoints Edwin T. Meredith to the American War Mission (which visited England and France to observe US military activities and make recommendations for improving conditions for WW1 service members)
  • AV Roe marries Marie Stopes
  • 1918 U.S. Postal Services includes airmail
  • Spanish Flu pandemic
  • 1918 the animated short film, “Crazy Plane” debuts animator Walt Disney’s Mickey and Minnie Mouse
  • Paris Peace Conference is held

1920 – 1929:

  • 1920 January US president, Wilson appoints Edwin T. Meredith to Secretary of Agriculture
  • Feb 2 Edwin T. Meredith is appointed US Secretary of Agriculture (succeeds David F. Houston, who is appointed US Secretary of the Treasury)
  • alcohol becomes illegal nationwide, ushering in the US’ “Prohibition” era
  • 1921 Allicott Verdon Roe and Marie Stopes open a birth control clinic in London
  • The League of Nations is created as an international organization to provide a forum for resolving international disputes (headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland)
  • the US’ 19th Amendment grants women the right to vote
  • Margaret Sanger organizes her birth control clinic into the American Birth Control League
  • 1922 the Marine Hospital Service, for whom US Congress had been appropriating funds, changes its name to Public Health Services and establishes a Special Cancer Investigations lab at Harvard Medical School
  • 1922 Ferris, TX obstetrician, Dr. Robert E. House presents his 1st paper– based on his observations of the standard “twilight sleep” procedure (which includes light chloroform anesthesia) he suggests a drug administration that could be useful as a “truth serum”; he suggests it be legalized, citing cases in which it was instrumental in securing the release of convicts from state prisons
  • US Secretary of the Interior leases the Teapot Oil Reserves in Wyoming
  • cocaine becomes illegal in the US as part of the Dangerous Drugs Act
  • Time Magazine publishes its 1st issue
  • Warner Brothers Pictures is incorporated
  • President, Warren G. Harding dies of illness following a trip to Alaska
  • 1st Winter Olympic Games held in France
  • 1924 IBM is founded
  • William Stephenson marries Tennessee tobacco heiress, Mary French Simmons
  • Stephenson and George W. Watson patent a system for wirelessly transmitting photographic images
  • J. Edgar Hoover is appointed head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • the 1st woman governor inaugurated in Wyoming, followed by the 2nd in Texas
  • a demo of synchronized pictures and sound (“radiovision”) is transmitted to US government representatives
  • liquid fueled rockets are tested in Massachusetts
  • the Sesqui-Centennial Expo in Philadelphia has a disappointing turnout
  • 1925 JD Williams builds the 1st movie studio sound stage at Elstree on Shenley Rd
  • 1925 Charles E. Waite, Dr, Calvin H. Goddard, Philip O. Gravelle, and John H. Fisher establish the Bureau of Forensic Ballistics in New York City to provide firearms identification services throughout the US
  • 1926 Captain Edward C. ‘Ned’ Crossman (well-known shooter and sports writer) examines firearms evidence for the sheriff of Los Angeles County, California and . becomes associated with the Bureau of Forensic Ballistics; he serves as a regional representative for the western US
  • 1926 Westinghouse, General Electric & RCA form NBC Radio Network
  • 1926 June 16 Daniel Guggenheim and his aviator son, Harry Guggenheim establish the “Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics”
  • Pressed Steel Company of Great Britain Ltd. is founded
  • British Motor Company is founded as a joint venture between car designer- turned manufacturer, William Morris (used US components and introduced the UK to Ford’s mass production)
  • UK’s metal fabricator, Budd Corporation, who held controlling interest and British-American bank, J. Henry Schroder & Co
  • the Spirit of St. Louis aircraft makes 1st non-stop transatlantic flight from New York City to Paris and back
  • talking pictures (“talkies”) and an electronic television system emerge
  • 1927 JD Williams leaves First National Pictures to found British National Pictures in London
  • 1927 Dr. Calvin Goddard testifies during the Massachusetts appeals trial of anarchists and convicted murderers, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
  • Flexner retires from GEB
  • 1928 JD Williams leaves British National Pictures
  • 1928 Alliott Verdon Roe sells his A.V. Roe Aircraft Co. shares, buys S. E. Saunders Co., forms Saunders-Roe
  • 1928 Marvel Whiteside Parsons (a.k.a. John Whiteside “Jack” Parsons) begins amateur rocket experiments with school friend, Edward S. Forman
  • 1929 Chicago Valentine’s Day Massacre
  • 1929 Calvin H. Goddard (the “father of forensic ballistics”) develops the US’ 1st “Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory” at Northwestern’s School of Law when Cook County (Chicago, Illinois) coroner, Herman Bundesen and 2 prominent Chicago businessmen desperate to revamp the city’s image after the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre offered Goddard a larger lab to investigate
  • 1929 Albert B. Fall (former US Secretary of the Interior) is convicted of accepting a bribe for leasing a California naval oil reserve
  • the stock market crash ushers in The Great Depression

1930 – 1939:

  • 1930 the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) is founded by Abraham Flexner (with philanthropists, Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld), who is its 1st director
  • 1930 the Hygienic Laboratory at Public Health Services is re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, which is given money to construct two NIH buildings
  • William J. Donovan (prominent lawyer, who won the Congressional Medal of Honor as an Army colonel in WW1) ran to succeed Franklin D. Roosevelt as governor of New York but lost to Herbert Lehman
  • 1931 General Aircraft Limited is formed to produce aircraft using wing designs of Mono-Spar Company Ltd (both headed by Swiss inventor, Helmut J. Steiger) at Croyden Aerodome
  • 1933 Humanist Manifesto (written primarily by Raymond Bragg, an American Unitarian minister), which presents humanism as a new religion to trancend and replace previous deity-based systems is published (34 of 65 asked signed, including J. A. C. Fagginger Auer, Harry Elmer Barnes and Bernard Fantus)
  • 1933 shots are fired at US presidential candidate, FDR
  • 1934 investment group, British Pacific Trust re-forms General Aircraft Limited and Mono-Spar Company
  • 1934 American, John Whiteside “Jack” Parsons and American, Edward S. Forman and graduate student, Frank Malina form the Caltech-affiliated, Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory (GALCIT) Rocket Research Group, supported by GALCIT chairman, Theodore von Kármán (mathematician, aerospace engineer, and physicist)
  • 1935 the University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College changes its name to New York University College of Medicine
  • 1935 Portuguese neurologist and early developer of cerebral angiography, António Egas Moniz completes the first prefrontal leukotomy to treat mental illness (his inspiration came largely from the works of Yale physiologists, John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen)
  • 1938 Freud moves from Vienna to London
  • Flexner retires from IAS
  • 1939 the GALCIT Group gains funding from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to work on Jet-Assisted Take Off (JATO) for the US military
  • 1939 Parsons converts to Aleister Crowley’s Thelema
  • 1939 Dec 24 Alma Wilson (who will eventually become The Right Honourable
    The Baroness Birk) marries Ellis Birk, a solicitor and director of the Daily Mirror Group (British national daily tabloid)
  • 1939 children’s magazine, “Tit-bits” starts putting pin-ups on its covers

1940 – 1949:

  • 1940 May 25 Reg Hipwell founds British weekly tabloid newspaper, “Reveille,”  originally the official newspaper of the Ex-Services’ Allied Association
  • General Radio Company leads long-range radio navigation (LORAN) development efforts at MIT’s radiation lab
  • 1941 Jack Parsons and his 1st wife, Helen Northrup join the Agape Lodge, the Californian branch of the Thelemite Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO)
  • 1942 Crowley appoints Jack Parson to replace Wilfred Talbot Smith as the leader of OTO’s Agape Lodge and runs it from his mansion on Orange Grove Ave.
  • 1944  Jack Parsons is expelled from JPL and Aerojet due to Agape Lodge’s infamous reputation and his “unorthodox and unsafe working methods” (following one of several FBI investigations into his involvement with the occult, drugs and sexual promiscuity)
  • 1945 Jack Parsons separates from his wife, Helen after an affair with her sister, Sara
  • 1946 Jack Parsons marries Marjorie Cameron
  • the British under attack by German forces send representatives from their secret services to see William J. Donovan; the key contact is old friend, William Stephenson (a WW1 Canadian air ace)
  • Warner Brother’s film, “The Fighting 69th” in which Donovan is played by actor, George Brent increased Donvan’s national popularity
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt appoints William J. Donovan  as “Coordinator of Information”
  • President Roosevelt appoints newspaper publisher, Frank Knox (friend and admirer of Donovan) to Secretary of the Navy
  • British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sends Stephenson to the US to covertly establish and run British Security Coordination (BSC) in New York City operating out of Rockefeller Center (registered by the State Department as a foreign entity officially known as the British Passport Control Office)
  • Donovan organizes COI’s New York headquarters in Rockefeller Center and asks Allen Dulles to head it (Donovan recruits OSS agents, such as film director John Ford, actor Sterling Hayden, Marie & Pierre Curie’s daughter Eve, banker Paul Mellon, industrialist Alfred I. du Pont’s son businessman Alfred V. du Pont psychologist Carl Jung, members of the Vanderbilt family)
  • 1940 Einstein becomes an American citizen
  • Germany recalls scientists and technical personnel from combat units and transfers them to positions where their skills can be used in research and development based on a list by engineer-scientist from University of Hannover, Werner Osenberg, who is head of Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association)
  • President Roosevelt signs a military order establishing the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and names now-civilian, William J. Donovan as Director
  • 1942 US Public Health Service creates “Malaria Control in War Areas” (MCWA) program
  • 1942 the American Birth Control League changes its name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America
  • 1942 William J. Donovan is appointed brigadier general in the US Army then promoted to the rank of major general
  • 1944 the US Public Health Service Act is approved; the National Cancer Institute becomes a division of NIH
  • 1945 President Harry S. Truman abolishes the OSS and transfers its functions to the State and War Departments
  • 1945
  • Polish science lab tech finds Osenberg’s list that someone attempted to destroy
  • Maj. Robert B. Staver, who was Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance in London, used the Osenberg List to compile a blacklist of scientists to be interrogated, headed by rocket scientist Wernher von Braun
  • 1945 US’ Joint Chiefs of Staff (advisory committee through the Department of Defense) implemented “Operation Overcast” (changed to “Operation Paperclip”) to evacuate, Nazi scientists and their families, who would be imported then housed in the US
  • 1945 radiation experiments start to be performed by the US Government on US citizen without their knowledge and/or consent
  • 1946 the International Cello-Cotton Company (now Kimberly-Clark) commissions “The Story of Menstruation” (a 10-minute animated film), which is produced by Walt Disney Productions and shown (a non-theatrical release) to about a million American students in health education classes
  • 1946 Kirkpatrick Lockhart (Pittsburgh-based) law firm is founded
  • The Communicable Disease Center (CDC) is founded by Dr. Joseph Mountin
  • President Truman signs establishes the Central Intelligence Group to operate under the direction of the National Intelligence Authority (Truman names the 1st Director of Central Intelligence, Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers, USNR)
  • The National Security Act establishes the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to replace the National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group
  • Frank Wisner is appointed director of the US government’s Office of Special Projects (will later become the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the CIA)
  • Andrew Carnegie’s mansion, which was his home until his death becomes the Cooper-Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum (part of the Smithsonian Institution) after his wife dies
  • the Central Intelligence Agency Act provides special administrative authorities and responsibilities for the Agency and the Director of the CIA
  • 1947 Britain’s The Mirror Group buys tabloid, “Reveille” (after which, it’s printed and published by IPC Newspapers Ltd.)
  • 1947 Dr. J. Lawrence Pool, Robert G. Heath and John Weber investigate whether the outcomes of specific psychosurgical procedures, such as a topectomy (bifrontal cortical ablation) can treat certain mental illnesses without the undesired consequences of irreversible personality changes of a lobotamy; they conduct Columbia University’s Greystone Project at the psychiatric hospital at Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital (Morristown, New Jersey)
  • 1948 the National Institute of Health changes its name to National Institutes of Health
  • 1949 Portuguese neurologist and early developer of cerebral angiography, António Egas Moniz wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leukotomy in certain psychoses.”

1950 – 1959:

  • 1950 Robert G. Heath and colleagues surgically implant electrodes and small tubes into subjects’/ patients’ brains (up to 125 electrodes in a single individual’s skull)
  • 1950 Alma Birk, a London School of Economics grad is elected to Finchley Borough Council to serve as leader of the Labour group
  • an assassination attempt of President, Harry S. Truman during White House renovations
  • the US Central Intelligence Agency’s mind-control program, “Project MK-Ultra” (organized through the CIA’s Office of Scientific Intelligence and coordinated with the US Army Biological Warfare Laboratories) is officially sanctioned
  • 1952 Jack Parsons dies (at the age of 37) in a home lab explosion, which the police rule an accident but many associates suspect is either suicide or murder
  • 1955 Chesebrough’s Vaseline and Pond’s creams merge
  • 1956 CIA approaches Robert G. Heath to conduct human and animal tests of bulbocapnine
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes $46 million for construction of a building for the CIA headquarters
  • President Eisenhower establishes the President’s Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities (predecessor to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board)
  • 1957 Robert Heath tests bulbocapnine on several monkeys and the 1st human, a prisoner from the penitentiary in Angola, Louisiana
  • 1958 Walt Disney Productions’ American- Canadian nature documentary, “White Wilderness” (won the Oscar/ Academy Award for “Best Documentary Feature”) films animals out of context and inaccurately narrates their behavior, which will influence public perception for decades
  • 1958 Cecil Harmsworth King becomes chairman of British newspaper group, The Daily Mirror Newspapers Limited (which included the “Daily Mirror,” the “Sunday Pictorial” and a provincial chain West of England Newspapers)
  • 1959 The Daily Mirror Newspapers Limited acquires Amalgamated Press and chairman, Cecil Harmsworth King changes the name to Fleetway Publications, Ltd.
  • President Eisenhower presides at laying of cornerstone of CIA Headquarters Building in Langley, Virginia

1960 – 1969: 

  • 1961 March Odhams Press absorbs both George Newnes and the Hulton Press; Fleetway takes over Odhams
  • A.V. Roe Aircraft Co. merges into Hawker Siddeley Aviation, a.k.a. “Avro”
  • 1962 Alan Frank Guttmacher becomes president of Planned Parenthood
  • 1963 the CIA implements “Operation Mockingbird” to infiltrate news organizations/ journalism and influence mass media
  • 1963 President, John F. Kennedy is shot and killed
  • 1963 the combined business interests of Fleetway, Odhams, and Newnes were all combined by the creation of a parent (“holding”) company called the International Publishing Corporation (IPC)
  • 1964 the first Surgeon General’s report links smoking to lung cancer is released, stating “cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action.”
  • 1965 British women’s lib magazine, “Nova” is founded by George Newnes, part of the International Publishing Corporation (IPC)
  • 1965 Pressed Steel Company is acquired by British Motor Corporation, who changed its name to British Motor Holdings
  • 1967 the US Division of Regional Medical Programs is created to administer grants for research for heart disease, cancer, and strokes.
  • 1967 South African cardiac surgeon, Dr. Christiaan Barnard conducts the 1st semi-successful human-to-human heart transplant
  • 1967 the US National Institute of Health director lobbies the White House for increased federal funding  to increase research and the speed of health benefits, for which an advisory committee is formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs
  • 1967 Alma Birk is created a life peer as Baroness Birk of Regent’s Park in Greater London
  • 1968 US Congress approves the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, which bans the sale and purchase of body parts and requires medical staff to establish procedures for identifying organ donors under hospital care
  • 1969 the Baroness Alma Birk is made chair of the Health Education Council

1970 – 1979: 

  • 1970 IPC-Mirror Group is taken over by the paper-making company, Albert E Reed, which then renames itself Reed International
  • 1971 US president, Nixon signs the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President’s Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, and 15 new research, training, and demonstration centers
  • 1972 Manfred Guttmacher’s son, Alan Edward Guttmacher earns a Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard College
  • 1974 President, Richard Nixon’s plane is hijacked
  • 1974 part of  publisher, Reed International is separated into “IPC Magazines Ltd.”(the magazine and comics holdings) and “Mirror Group Newspapers” (the newspaper holdings)
  • President Gerald R. Ford creates the Commission on CIA Activities within the US (chaired by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller)
  • the US Senate establishes its Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities (chairman, Senator Frank Church)
  • the US House establishes its Select Committee on Intelligence to investigate allegations of “illegal or improper” activities of federal intelligence agencies (Its 1st chairman, Representative Lucien Nedzi will later be replaced by Representative Otis G. Pike)
  • 2 days before the Select Committee on Intelligence was scheduled to conclude its activities, the US House voted to withhold public dissemination of its final report
  • the Church Committee, who investigated the US’ intelligence activities for 15 months was disestablished upon submission of its final report to the public
  • the US Senate establishes a permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (under the chairmanship of Senator Daniel K. Inouye) to carry out oversight of the nation’s intelligence organizations
  • the US House of Representatives establishes a permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (chaired by Representative Edward P. Boland) to differs from the SSCI in that it has oversight jurisdiction over the CIA but shares with several other US House committees legislative oversight authority over all other intelligence agencies
  • President Jimmy Carter announces reorganization of the Intelligence Community, creating a high-level committee chaired by the DCI to set priorities for collecting and producing intelligence and giving the DCI full control of budget and operational tasking of intelligence collection
  • President Carter reshapes the government’s intelligence structure and provides explicit guidance on all facets of intelligence activities
  • 1973 children’s magazine “Tit-bits” loses the hyphen in its title
  • 1973 Humanist Manifesto II (an update to Humanist Manifesto in 1933) is written by humanists, Paul Kurtz and Edwin H. Wilson, who call for an absolute rejection of theism and deism, oppose racism and weapons of mass destruction, support human rights, propose an international court and the right to unrestricted abortion and contraception (the 120 signatories include Isaac Asimov, Paul Blanshard, Francis Crick, Betty Friedan, Maxine Greene, Alan F. Guttmacher, Julian Huxley, Vashti McCollum, A. Philip Randolph and BF Skinner)
  • 1974 Baroness Birk is a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Department of the Environment
  • 1977 US TV, ABC Evening News reports on a closed session in which CIA director, Admiral Stansfield Turner, who provided info to the Senate Intelligence Committee regarding previously “misplaced” documents about a mind control program from the 1950s, which include a secret contract with an “unidentified” neurology professor to experiment on convicts in an “unnamed state prison” with poppy-derived chemical, Bobolocapnine (which they learned about from the Russians) and a document from 1949 outlining ways to kill without leaving evidence of murder
  • 1979 September “Reveille” newspapers merges with “Titbits” magazine (as “Titbits incorporating Reveille”)
  • 1979  Baroness Birk becomes Minister of State in the Privy Council Office

1980 – 1989: 

  • 1981 President Reagan reconstitutes the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and names 19 distinguished citizens outside of government to serve on the Board
  • 1981 Manfred Guttmacher’s son, Alan Edward Guttmacher earns his MD from Harvard Medical School
  • 1982 Alan Edward Guttmacher interns and is a medical resident in Pediatrics at Children’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts
  • President Reagan clarifies ambiguities of previous orders and sets clear goals for the Intelligence Community
  • 1984 the US’ National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) is revised, which gives way to the Organ Procurement and Transplantational Network
  • 1984  Mirror Group Newspapers is sold to Pergamon Holdings Ltd (a private company owned by Robert Maxwell)
  • Robert Maxwell owns magazine, the (Daily) “Mirror”
  • 1985 Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher earns a two-year National Research Service Award from the US Public Health Service as a fellow in medical genetics at Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School
  • Tulane University awards Robert Heath an honorary Doctor of Science degree and creates an endowed chair in his honor
  • 1985 US Vice President Bush presides at the laying of the cornerstone for the CIA Headquarters Building Expansion
  • a Chinese study shows evidence of disrupted intellectual development in middle school-aged children is among the effects of high fluoride + low iodine (much more serious than low iodine alone)
  • 1987 Manfred Guttmacher’s son, Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher becomes director of the Vermont Regional Genetics Center at the University of Vermont College of Medicine where he launches a series of programs in public health genetics, as well as directs the Vermont Cancer Center’s Familial Cancer Program, the Vermont Newborn Screening Program, Vermont’s only pediatric intensive care unit and the US’ first statewide effort to involve the general public in discussion of the Human Genome Project

1990 – 1999:

  • a Chinese study of middle school-aged children shows both high and low levels of fluoride can affect normal cerebral development and function along with the entire nervous system causing decreased intellectual ability
  • 4 studies of Chinese elementary school students show fluoride can lower IQ and exacerbate central nervous system lesions and somatic develop disturbance caused by iodine deficiency
  • a Chinese study of children aged 7-16 shows that the higher the levels of fluoride in the water the lower the students’ IQ
  • a Chinese study shows middle school-aged students with an excess of fluoride + lack of iodine has a marked effect on their intellectual development, causing more significant intellectual deficit than lack of iodine alone
  • a Chinese study of middle school-aged children finds food contaminated by coal smoke lowers the mental capacity among those with dental fluorosis, which indicates that early, long-term exposure to excess fluoride causes deficits in memory, attention reaction time
  • a Chinese study of middle-school aged children demonstrates that fluorine increases toxicity and worsen the occurrence of thyroid swelling
  • a Chinese study finds high fluoride intake from coal burning is associated with lower intelligence among middle school-aged students
  • a Chinese study finds gradually progressive effects on normal brain function and metabolism of adults with industrial fluorine poisoning– high concentrations of fluorine effects bones, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissue + widespread symptoms throughout the entire nervous system
  • 2 studies find high intake of fluoride in drinking water has significant damage to IQ in children
  • 1993 Tulane University establishes the Health Endowed Lectureship in Psychiatry and Neurology
  • Nov 1993 after an investigation led by Hazel O’Leary, the seventh United States energy secretary, records of human radiation experiments from 1944 to 1974 by the US government are released
  • 1995 March 15 Toronto, Ontario’s CKLN radio station airs an interview with Will Snodgrass (local cable TV producer for Chemical Injury Communication Network from Missoula, Montana) New Orleans’ clinical social worker, Valerie B. Wolf and 2 of her clients, Claudia S. Mullen and Chris de Nicola Ebner
  • 1996 the US Federal Government settles (awards money as compensation) for some of the radiation experiments it conducted on citizens without their knowledge and/or consent
  • 1996 the National Human Genome Research Institute partners with the American Medical Association and the American Nurses Association to establish the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics (NCHPEG)
  • 1998 “IPC Magazines Ltd.” is bought out by venture capital group, Cinven; the company is renamed “IPC Media”
  • 1999 Manfred Guttmacher’s son, Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher– a pediatrician and medical geneticist– joins the US National Institute of Health to work at the National Human Genome Research Institute
  • 1999 Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher co-founds “Genetic Resources On the Web (GROW),” whose membership includes over 30 organizations (including health professional groups, patient-support groups, federal agencies, foundations, non-profit agencies and for-profit companies) that sponsor genetics-related web sites

2000 – 2009:

  • 2000 a Chinese research findings replicate earlier studies suggesting a real relationship between fluoride exposure and intelligence
  • 2001 Cinven sells “IPC Media” to “Time Inc.” (magazine publishing subsidiary of Time Warner)
  • 2001 a Chinese study finds high iodine + high fluorine influence middle school aged children’s intelligence and thyroid function
  • 2002 Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher becomes Deputy Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute’
  • 2003 two Chinese studies testing the effect of fluoride in drinking water– high levels were associated with higher rates of mental retardation and lower rates of IQ not related to urinary iodine, family income or parents’ education level
  • 2003 a Chinese study find cognitive function limitations in adults suffering from chronic fluoride poisoning
  • Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher and the National Human Genome Research Institute’s then-director, Dr. Francis S. Collins, co-edits “Genomic Medicine,” a series about the application of advances in genomics to medical care for “The New England Journal of Medicine”
  • 2004 Dr. Daniel K. Winstead is an occupant of Robert Heath Chair of Psychiatry/ Neurology
  • 2005 Kirkpatrick & Lockhart law firm and Nicholson, Graham & Jones law firm merge to become Kirkpatrick & Lockhart Nicholson Graham
  • 2006 The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act is revised to clarify if and how organs are donated (wishes of the deceased must be honored and organs must be kept with the body unless otherwise documented)
  • 2007 Jan 1 Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, Nicholson, Gates law firm merges with PG&E law firm to form Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, Preston, Gates, Ellis (“K&L Gates”) law firm
  • 2008 Jan K&L Gates combines with Hughes & Luce law (Dallas-based) firm; July K&L Gates combines with Kennedy, Covington, Lobdell & Hickman, LLP (North Carolina-based)
  • 2008 Aug 2 Dr. Alan Edward Guttmacher assumes the role of Acting Director of National Human Genome Research Institute
  • 2009 March 1 K&L Gates merges with Bell, Boyd & Lloyd (Chicago-based) law firm

2010 – 2019:

  • 2013 KL & Gates combines with Australian law firm, Middletons (this extends KL & Gates’ reach to over 2,000 lawyers in 46 offices across 5 continents)
  • 2014 Sept. the UK’s IPC Media formally becomes Time Inc., which creates a single Time Inc. brand in both the US and UK
  • 2018 Feb 26 Meredith Corporation completes its purchase of Time Inc.
  • an objection is voiced against the University of Tulane’s continuing tribute to Robert Heath and his legacy

2020 – 2029:

  • David C. Rybicki from the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) joins global law firm, K&L Gates, LLP



Wikipedia     Encyclopaedia Britannica      Fandom


US State Department: Office of the Historian

America’s Best History Timeline     The Famous People

American history from Native American to independence

U.S. House of Representatives’ History, Art & Archives      Biographical Directory of US Congress

famous economists

University of Minnesota: David Ricardo     Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: David Hume

Find a Grave      Oppenheimer family genealogy

the Guttmacher Institute: who was Alan Guttmacher?

History of Luzerne Country, PA

a timeline of US railway history

U.S. Food & Drug Administration (Part I: The 1906 Food & Drugs Act and Its Administration)

Bayer AG: biographies: Friedrich Bayer

Great Britain’s “The Anatomy Act, 1832; The Pharmacy Act, 1852; The Pharmacy Act, 1869; The Anatomy Act, 1871” via University of Leeds’ Wellcome Library

Australian food history timeline

64 studies linking effects of fluoride to low IQ

World Atlas: How Old is Chewing Gum?     Chemical & Engineering News: Chewing Gum

Why we Need an Updated “Osler Report” and not a “Flexner Report”

Biography: Clarence Birdseye    Famous Scientists: Clarence Birdseye    How Products are Made: TV Dinner

A History of the Frozen Meat Trade      Library of Congress’ collection of Sigmund Freud papers

History of Cocaine      History of Coca-Cola

Hagley Museum & Library: General Radio Company history      MIT News: commemorating the LORAN

Operation Paperclip

Operation Mockingbird documentary     Operation Mockingbird (declassified docs)

Operation Mockingbird (general info as audiofile)     Operation Mockingbird (general info with additional links)

Operation MK Ultra (declassified docs)     former MK Ultra patients sue the U.S. government documentary

US Government- sponsored mind control and Tulane (Valerie Wolf interview)

Executive Summary and Guide to Final Report of Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments

1950s video footage of US Army LSD experiment on a cat

video footage of US Army acid test from 1963

United States Human Radiation Experiments

Changing People’s Minds, Tulane Style: A Tale from Two Perspectives (Tulane University professor’s psychiatric experiments on prison inmates)

Preserve Greystone: history of Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital

Journal of Neurosurgery: topectomy vs. leukotomy: J. Lawrence Pool’s contribution to psychosurgery

University of London’s bio of Marie Stopes

Walt Disney’s The Story of Menstruation

firearm examiner training historical timeline

Then: Law School Lab Advanced Study of Ballistics from Northwestern (University)


The Key (Official Journal of of Northwestern Centre for Public Safety): Calvin Goddard & the Northwestern Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory

key events in CIA’s history      Wild Bill Donovan and the origins of the OSS

Einstein Museum in Switzerland     SparkNotes’ study guide to Einstein’s on Pacifism & Zionism

US State Dept. Office of the Historian: The League of Nations


Medicine & Doctoring in Ancient Mesopotamia

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